Connect With Us

21. Blood Tests Suggest Reason Behind Gulf War Syndrom

Source: INSIGHT Title: “Sickness and Secrecy,” Date: August 25, 1997, Author: Paul M. Rodriguez

SSU Censored Researchers: Robin Stovall and Kecia Kaiser
SSU Faculty Evaluator: Andy Merrifield, Ph.D.

Gulf War-related illnesses are rampant among American war veterans. One suggestion as to the cause of the illnesses has surfaced with new blood tests on the most seriously ill victims. A synthetic substance, squalene, banned for use in humans, has been found in blood tests of hundreds of sick Gulf War veterans, some of whom never left U.S. soil. Complicating the issue is the U.S. Department of Defense’s “loss” of over 700,000 service-related immunization records, which might provide a clue as to why squalene is showing up in Gulf War veterans’ blood samples.

Analysis of the blood samples has shown antibody levels of the experimental adjuvant compound known as squalene. This compound, not approved for internal human use other than in highly controlled experiments, has been studied on animals and humans as a promising tool that might help boost the body immune systems against influenza, herpes simplex, and HIV. Only government agencies are involved in human experimental tests using adjuvants (including squalene) yet the government has denied that experimental HIV immunization tests were ever expanded to the general population of sick people or military personnel.

The military has rejected any claim that immunizations administered to Gulf War military personnel prior to leaving for the war contained any adjuvants, but actual immunization records for the period have either been lost or destroyed. This has led to speculation in several circles that the government used military personnel to test experimental immunizations.

Military samples of blood drawn from the vets showed positive reactions for squalene antibodies. Samples of test subjects involved in federal experimental HIV studies also show positive reactions for squalene. It should be noted the medication administered to those involved in this HIV study contained the adjuvant squalene. These test subjects have never served in the military.

A military lab researcher interviewed by Insight was quoted as saying, “We have found soldiers who are not sick that do not have the antibodies, and we found soldiers who never left the United States, but who got shots (administered by the military) who are sick—and they have squalene in their systems. We found people who served overseas in various parts of the desert that are sick who have squalene. And we found people who served in the desert but were civilians who never got the shots, who are not sick and do not have squalene.”

Many people believe that there is probably no single cause for Gulf War Syndrome. Due to the disappearance of the inoculation records, even the most elementary checks cannot occur.

UPDATE BY AUTHOR PAUL M. RODRIGUEZ: “Since publication, none of the so-called mainstream press has followed up on the original story (or subsequent reports) by Insight. This may be due to the controversial nature of the issue and/or obstruction by military and politicos who alternatively have denied, rejected, or brushed aside the story.

“The Insight stories were (and are) based on preliminary and ongoing medical tests by one of the country’s most prestigious laboratories. This laboratory, which plans soon to seek ‘peer’ reviews, has initially confirmed the highly unusual discovery of antibodies to a polymer compound called squalene in the blood of sick Gulf War soldiers who served overseas as well as in the blood of those who never left the United States. In both camps, the sick soldiers received multiple inoculations and immunizations.

“At first, Defense Department and military/veterans’ officials denied they had such a substance, even experimentally. Then slowly over many months it was learned—and officials conceded—that squalene has been, in fact, tested extensively as a promising new ‘adjuvant’ compound in experimental drugs to protect troops against malaria, herpes, and potentially even HIV. However, to this day, the government denies it ever used squalene during the Gulf War period.

“This poses several intriguing questions, not the least of which is: Why does something that’s not supposed to be there show up in sick vets? Bipartisan members of Congress and the General Accounting Office are now looking into the issue. Insight will continue to report what is found, and, of course, what is not found.”

  • Alex Volken March 30, 2011

    First of all, squalene is NOT synthetic. The human body makes squalene using an enzyme named squalene synthase.

    A correlation between the presence of antisqualene antibodies (ASA) in those with Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) was discovered (Asa et al., 2000). Specifically, those who received anthrax vaccine were also noted to have ASA (Asa et al., 2002). These findings suggested to Asa & Garry that administration of exogenous squalene leads to GWS, a putative autoimmune disorder, which they discuss in their patent (Asa & Garry, 2001).

    Perhaps the most relevant evidence linking squalene to GWS comes from research done on rats (Carlson et al., 2000). Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting squalene in dose/bodyweight ratios that are 2000 times larger than a human receiving a single dose of AS03 adjuvanted vaccine.

    None of the evidence shows that squalene itself or ASA have any causal role in GWS. Some articles examine links between specific exposures and GWS (Gray et al., 2002). Some suggest GWS is an autoimmune problem, possibly caused by vaccine exposure or exposure to other substances (Peakman et al., 2006; Vojdani and Thrasher, 2004). Others even suggest that GWS is psychosomatic.

    If you take a look at Asa&Garry’s (2002) patent, look at the research they cite and you’ll see that the papers they refer to do NOT find a correlation between autoimmune problems and squalene. In fact, it is another substance that is correlated with autoimmune problems in the literature they cite.

    Olive oil is 0.7% squalene (Waterman et al., 2007). Evidence suggests that 60 – 85% of oral squalene is absorbed (Kelly, 1999). A study on the effect of feeding people 900 mg of squalene daily for between 7 to 30 days shows increased squalene in serum (Strandberg et al., 1990). It has been suggested that the benefits of a Mediterranean diet are partly due to squalene (Newmark, 1997).

    Consider a tablespoon of olive oil. Its density is about 0.9 g/mL, so a tablespoon is 14.5 g. At 0.7%, it has 101.5 mg of squalene. Assuming 60% absorbtion of squalene, each tablespoon leads to absorbtion of about 60 mg of squalene.

    A dose of Arepanrix and other AS03 adjuvanted vaccines has 10.68 mg of squalene. A tablespoon of olive oil, leads to absorbtion of about 6 times as much squalene. Consider how much olive oil is in a Mediterranean diet.

    There is no good evidence that squalene is toxic.

    Squalene is NOT synthetic (not that this matters – whether something is produced in nautre or a lab does not determine its toxicity)

    REFERENCES

    Asa PB, Cao Y, Garry RF. (2000) Antibodies to squalene in GulfWar syndrome. Exp Mol Pathol. 68: 55 – 64.

    Asa PB, Garry RF (inventors). (April 2001) Method for detecting anti-squalene antibodies. US patent # 6214566.

    Asa PB, Wilson RB, Garry RF. (2002) Antibodies to squalene in recipients of anthrax vaccine. Exp Mol Pathol. 73: 19 – 27.

    Carlson BC, Jansson AM, Larsson A, Bucht A, Lorentzen JC. (2000) The endogenous adjuvant squalene can induce a chronic T-cell-mediated arthritis in rats. Am J Pathol. 156: 2057 – 2065.

    Gray GC, Reed RJ, Kaiser KS, Smith TC, Gastañaga VM. (2002) Self-reported symptoms and medical conditions among 11,868 Gulf War-era veterans: the Seabee Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 155: 1033 – 1044.

    Kelly GS. (1999) Squalene and its potential clinical uses. Altern Med Rev. 4: 29 – 36.
    [http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/4/1/29.pdf]

    Newmark HL. (1997) Squalene, olive oil, and cancer risk: a review and hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 6: 1101 – 1103.
    [http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/6/12/1101.full.pdf]

    Phillips CJ, Matyas GR, Hansen CJ, Alving CR, Smith TC, Ryan MA. (2009) Antibodies to squalene in US Navy Persian Gulf War veterans with chronic multisymptom illness. Vaccine. 27: 3921 – 3926.

    Strandberg TE, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. (1990) Metabolic variables of cholesterol during squalene feeding in humans: comparison with cholestyramine treatment. J Lipid Res. 31: 1637 – 1643.
    [http://www.jlr.org/cgi/reprint/31/9/1637.pdf]

    Vojdani A and Thrasher JD. (2004) Cellular and humoral immune abnormalities in Gulf War veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 112: 840 – 846.

    Waterman E, Lockwood B. (2007) Active components and clinical applications of olive oil. Altern Med Rev. 12: 331 – 342.
    [http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/12/4/331.pdf]

  • Alex Volken March 30, 2011

    The above article asks:

    “This poses several intriguing questions, not the least of which is: Why does something that’s not supposed to be there show up in sick vets?”

    The reporter who wrote this article should be ashamed for spewing out such nonsense. EVERY human being produces squalene using an enzyme named squalene synthase. Squalene SHOULD be found in humans.

    Squalene itself is ENDOGENOUS to the human body. Every human being should have squalene in them and should be producing squalene.

    Furthermore, the research did not look for squalene in Gulf War vets, but looked for (and found) anti-bodies in squalene.

  • Austinexile2 December 20, 2011

    And that is exactly why there is always a problem with using squalene as an adjuvant ina a vaccine cocktail to be injected!  It causes an antibody response to naturally occurring human squalene! —which then causes a myriad of adverse health effects!!!

  • Austinexile2 December 20, 2011

    And that is exactly why there is always a problem with using squalene as an adjuvant ina a vaccine cocktail to be injected!  It causes an antibody response to naturally occurring human squalene! —which then causes a myriad of adverse health effects!!!

  • Austinexile2 December 20, 2011

    And that is exactly why there is always a problem with using squalene as an adjuvant ina a vaccine cocktail to be injected!  It causes an antibody response to naturally occurring human squalene! —which then causes a myriad of adverse health effects!!!

  • Austinexile2 December 20, 2011

    Just because something is edible and nontoxic does not mean that it can be safely used as an adjuvant and added to an injectaable vaccine. “Squalene is not itself an adjuvant, but it has been used in conjunction with surfactants in certain adjuvant formulations”  Novartis has used squalene in many of their flu vaccines without a discovered problem However, in these military preparations we do not know what surfactant or other chemicals the squalene was combined with. Producing an immune response to the naturally occuring squalene in a persons body, where squalene is a the biochemical precursor to the whole family of steroids, would have obvious repercusions!  

  • Austinexile2 December 20, 2011

    Just because something is edible and nontoxic does not mean that it can be safely used as an adjuvant and added to an injectaable vaccine. “Squalene is not itself an adjuvant, but it has been used in conjunction with surfactants in certain adjuvant formulations”  Novartis has used squalene in many of their flu vaccines without a discovered problem However, in these military preparations we do not know what surfactant or other chemicals the squalene was combined with. Producing an immune response to the naturally occuring squalene in a persons body, where squalene is a the biochemical precursor to the whole family of steroids, would have obvious repercusions!  

  • BoneDaddyChoppers1979 January 30, 2012

    I served with the US Navy from 1988-1992 and at present am experiencing nerve damage which is limiting my arm’s and leg function. The thing I am having a problem with is that I signed up with the military to defend American soil, and not to be used for a Oilman’s mercenary tool so as to inflate his bank account. By no mean’s recall willingly allow myself to be used as a labrat for DEPLETED Uranium weapons fallout and experimental drugs. Why is our Gov allowing this type of thing’s to happen to our nations son’s and daughter’s? Years later with the not good for me side effects taking its toll on my body, and pretty much putting an end to what once was a active lifestyle. The world has pretty much turned its back on me. I guess being a Desert Storm Veteran doesn’t mean anything to the big money people who have put me in this everyday painful situation. Vet’s today have nobody to rely on but each other, the freeloader’s of our country don’t care about nobody but themselves and destroy everything in their path.

  • BoneDaddyChoppers1979 January 30, 2012

    I served with the US Navy from 1988-1992 and at present am experiencing nerve damage which is limiting my arm’s and leg function. The thing I am having a problem with is that I signed up with the military to defend American soil, and not to be used for a Oilman’s mercenary tool so as to inflate his bank account. By no mean’s recall willingly allow myself to be used as a labrat for DEPLETED Uranium weapons fallout and experimental drugs. Why is our Gov allowing this type of thing’s to happen to our nations son’s and daughter’s? Years later with the not good for me side effects taking its toll on my body, and pretty much putting an end to what once was a active lifestyle. The world has pretty much turned its back on me. I guess being a Desert Storm Veteran doesn’t mean anything to the big money people who have put me in this everyday painful situation. Vet’s today have nobody to rely on but each other, the freeloader’s of our country don’t care about nobody but themselves and destroy everything in their path.

Project Censored 2014
Receive a Free Project Censored "Top 25 Censored Stories" Book For Being a Member
Become a $5 monthly subscriber to Project Censored and as long as you are a member, every year we will send you the newest Project Censored Top 25 Most Censored Stories of the Year book. You can choose paperback or e-book, you can cancel your monthly support at any time, and your support is tax deductible. 

Book, button, 3@2x